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Saturday, March 17, 2012

article : Classification Organism with three domain - six kingdom Kingdom Classification System

In the post previous articles click here,  classification system into the five kingdom system. Now This divides cellular organisms into:

The Kingdoms of Organisms:

This presentation has taken as standard the "three domain - six kingdom" model of organism diversity, based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons, of Carl Woese and co-workers. This divides cellular organisms into:
  • Bacteria (Eubacteria),
  • Archaea (Archaebacteria) and
  • Eukarya (Eukaryotes; further divided into Protista, Plantae, Animalia and Fungi).
Reference:
GJ Olsen and CR Woese (1993). FASEB Journal 7: 113-123.

However, Robert H Whittaker and Lyn Margulis have suggested that organisms should be divided into five kingdoms: that is,
  • Monera or Procaryotae (prokaryotes, including Bacteria and Archaea)
  • Protista (eukaryotes with single- or colonial cellular organisation, may be photosynthetic)
  • Fungi (generally multinucleate eukaryotes with walled syncytia)
  • Animalia (wall-less eukaryote cells organised into complex organisms)
  • Plantae (generally autotrophic plants, mostly with photosynthetic plastids, simple multicellular to advanced tissue organisation)
This model includes some "plants" as protists, and makes no distinction between Archaea and Bacteria.
Reference:
RH Whittaker and L Margulis (1978). BioSystems 10: 3-18

To complicate matters, James Lake and co-workers have lately proposed a radical re-structuring of the "universal" phylogenetic tree, to split Archaea into Halobacteria, Methanogens and Eocytes. This would mean there are three major groupings of prokaryotes (Eubacteria + Halobacteria, Methanogens and Eocytes), which could all constitute kingdoms on their own, given each is as unrelated to the others as any are to Eukarya.
Reference:
JA Lake (1991). Trends in Biochemical Sciences 16: 46-50.

There is also a 2-empire / 8-kingdom scheme, with Archaeobacteria and Eubacteria as kingdoms in Empire Bacteria, and 6 kingdoms in Empire Eukaryota:
  • Archezoa (primitive eukaryotes without chloroplasts or mitochondria)
  • Protozoa (unicellular wall-less eukaryotes with mitochondria)
  • Chromista (photosynthetic organisms with chloroplasts within the lumen of the rough ER; eg: diatoms, brown algae, cryptomonads, oomycetes)
  • Plantae (photosynthetic organisms with chloroplasts within cytoplasm; all land plants, many green algae)
  • Fungi
  • Animalia
Reference: 
Cavalier-Smith T (1993). Microbiological Reviews 57: 953-994

Source article :

12 comments:

mufiyanto said...

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tik tok said...

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Fotis Greek said...

I think the five-kingdom classification, although a little bit odd at first sight, makes a lot of sense. Don't like the overcomplicated 6-kingodm system though:)
Nice post, thanks for keeping it up!

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