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Saturday, March 17, 2012

article : Classification Organism with three domain - six kingdom Kingdom Classification System

In the post previous articles click here,  classification system into the five kingdom system. Now This divides cellular organisms into:

The Kingdoms of Organisms:

This presentation has taken as standard the "three domain - six kingdom" model of organism diversity, based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons, of Carl Woese and co-workers. This divides cellular organisms into:
  • Bacteria (Eubacteria),
  • Archaea (Archaebacteria) and
  • Eukarya (Eukaryotes; further divided into Protista, Plantae, Animalia and Fungi).
GJ Olsen and CR Woese (1993). FASEB Journal 7: 113-123.

However, Robert H Whittaker and Lyn Margulis have suggested that organisms should be divided into five kingdoms: that is,
  • Monera or Procaryotae (prokaryotes, including Bacteria and Archaea)
  • Protista (eukaryotes with single- or colonial cellular organisation, may be photosynthetic)
  • Fungi (generally multinucleate eukaryotes with walled syncytia)
  • Animalia (wall-less eukaryote cells organised into complex organisms)
  • Plantae (generally autotrophic plants, mostly with photosynthetic plastids, simple multicellular to advanced tissue organisation)
This model includes some "plants" as protists, and makes no distinction between Archaea and Bacteria.
RH Whittaker and L Margulis (1978). BioSystems 10: 3-18

To complicate matters, James Lake and co-workers have lately proposed a radical re-structuring of the "universal" phylogenetic tree, to split Archaea into Halobacteria, Methanogens and Eocytes. This would mean there are three major groupings of prokaryotes (Eubacteria + Halobacteria, Methanogens and Eocytes), which could all constitute kingdoms on their own, given each is as unrelated to the others as any are to Eukarya.
JA Lake (1991). Trends in Biochemical Sciences 16: 46-50.

There is also a 2-empire / 8-kingdom scheme, with Archaeobacteria and Eubacteria as kingdoms in Empire Bacteria, and 6 kingdoms in Empire Eukaryota:
  • Archezoa (primitive eukaryotes without chloroplasts or mitochondria)
  • Protozoa (unicellular wall-less eukaryotes with mitochondria)
  • Chromista (photosynthetic organisms with chloroplasts within the lumen of the rough ER; eg: diatoms, brown algae, cryptomonads, oomycetes)
  • Plantae (photosynthetic organisms with chloroplasts within cytoplasm; all land plants, many green algae)
  • Fungi
  • Animalia
Cavalier-Smith T (1993). Microbiological Reviews 57: 953-994

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Fotis Greek said...

I think the five-kingdom classification, although a little bit odd at first sight, makes a lot of sense. Don't like the overcomplicated 6-kingodm system though:)
Nice post, thanks for keeping it up!

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